By Sidney Ochs
Sidney Ochs starts his survey with a chronological examine the background of nerves from the 5th century B.C. to the early eighteenth century to illustrate the advance of our wisdom of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal functionality. Ochs then adopts a thematic strategy, contemplating key themes from the eighteenth century to the current. the quantity will function a useful source for historians of neuroscience and drugs, philosophers of technological know-how and drugs, and neuroscientists.
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Extra resources for A History of Nerve Functions: From Animal Spirits to Molecular Mechanisms
And that the soul’s ﬁrst instrument for all the sensations of the animal and for its voluntary motions as well be as this pneuma; and therefore when the pneuma has escaped, and until it is collected again, it does not deprive the animal of its life but renders it incapable of sensation and motion. 31 Galen, as did the Alexandrians, clearly distinguished nerves from tendons and ligaments, and knew that a muscle’s action is dependent on its innervation. He demonstrated this in the vivisected pig.
33 In this, Galen foreshadowed the awareness of the involuntary (autonomic) nervous system (Chapter 6). GALEN’S VIEW OF VISION Galen did not support an interoceptive view of vision, one in which “thin ﬁlms” emanating from the surface of objects pass into the eye to be recognized. He supported the exteroceptive concept of vision favored by Theophrastus and the Stoics (Chapter 1). 34 This position was supported by his observation that when one eye is closed the pupil of the other eye becomes enlarged.
2 (Galen, 1962), Books (IX–XV). ” The designation Hunayn medicine is traced to Hunayn ibn Ishaq (al-Ibadi) (808–873), a Nestorian Christian who was appointed chief physician at the court in Baghdad, at the time the center of learning in the Islamic Empire. Hunayn had traveled widely – to Syria, Palestine, and Egypt – gathering Arabic, Syriac, and Greek manuscripts that he and his students translated. Of special importance were 129 Greek manuscripts of Galen works they translated and that would otherwise have been lost.