A Practical Approach to Water Conservation for Commercial by Mohan Seneviratne

By Mohan Seneviratne

And trade use tremendous quantities of water, and in a few elements of the realm water is changing into a scarce commodity. This publication is a 'best perform' handbook for water conservation for commercial and advertisement clients world-wide. It deals a realistic account of the measures which might be taken to re-educate commercial and advertisement clients within the suggestions of water saving and re-use - wherever on the earth.

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1 Chromium Chromium is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, soil and in volcanic dust and gases. Chromium is present in the environ­ ment in several different forms. The most common forms are as the ele­ ment chromium(0), chromium Cr3+ and chromium Cr6+ . No taste or odour is associated with chromium compounds. Chromium Cr3+ occurs natu­ rally in the environment and is an essential nutrient. Chromium Cr6+ and chromium(0) are generally produced by industrial processes. Chromium Cr6+ and chromium Cr3+ are used for chrome plating, dyes and pigments, leather tanning and wood preserving.

The weight of solids collected divided by the quantity of water passed through the filter gives the suspended solids con­ centration in mg/L. Suspended solids contribute to the fouling of process and heat transfer equipment. Suspended solids can harbour micro-organisms which can result in health-related risks as well as corrosion of materials known as microbio­ logically influenced corrosion. Turbidity is a measure of the cloudiness of water. It is an indirect mea­ surement of suspended solids. The cloudy appearance is caused by the scattering and absorption of light by these particles.

7 Micro-organisms Micro-organisms can be classified into two categories. First, those that pose a threat to human health (pathogens) and secondly, those which contribute to fouling and corrosion of equipment (but are non-pathogenic). The most common human microbial pathogens found in water are enteric in origin. That means that enteric pathogens enter the environment in the faeces of infected hosts and therefore these are commonly found in sewagecontaminated water. Enteric pathogens can be viruses, bacteria, protozoa and Helminths.

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