By Friedrich G. Barth
Spiders are extraordinary creatures. Their diversified and complicated diversity of habit and hugely constructed sensory structures are excellently tailored to the environmental stipulations - as is confirmed by way of their evolutionary good fortune. Over four hundred million years, spiders have built their sensory organs to a desirable technical perfection and complexity.
In his fascinating publication, Professor Friedrich G. Barth places this technical perfection into the context of "biology", during which the interplay among surroundings and sensory organs and the selectivity of the senses as a hyperlink among setting and behaviour play an important function.
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Extra info for A Spider's World: Senses and Behavior
2. Entrained activity rhythm of Cupiennius salei (adult females) after reversal of LD cycle (12 :12 light-dark) to DL cycle. Top This actogram shows high activity of the animal when the light is switched on at 06:00 h (initial LD cycle); within 48 h, however, the spider is synchronized with the new DL cycle. Bottom Distribution of hourly activity (± SD) during 21 days. --~~--e=~~~ 0 6 12 18 24 Time [h] walk shortly after the onset of darkness. The experiments also showed that their activity is usually maximal in the first three hours of the dark phase and the activity period usually lasts 6 to 7 hours.
7 h and indicates the period of the endogenous rhythm. 31 h. : ------------------ - - --- -- ---------- ------------ --- ----~ -"' -------- . 5 a. 5 0. 9 C. salei Q 2 ......... 2 m tei. '. c. getaziQ C. gelazi cf 4 4 2 2 ~ ~ ............ Time [h) Fig. 4a-f. Daily locomotor activity patterns of adult males and females of Cupiennius salei, C. coccineus, and C. getazi (in all cases n =10); mean (thick line) and standard error (thin line, only lower limits shown). Horizontal lines indicate SOo/o values of activity and the shaded areas the time periods of maximum activity.
Kuhn-Nentwig et al. (1994) have isolated 13 such components and determined the amino acid sequences of the toxin CSTX-1 (CS for Cupiennius salei, TX for toxin). ). The raw venom of C. 43 ng/mg fly. Apart from several disulfide-rich peptides like the neurotoxic CSTX1 the venom of Cupiennius salei also contains peptides of smaller molecular mass which show antibacterial activity (KuhnNentwig et al 1998). Sensory Systems What is the biological significance of sense organs? This question is central to an understanding of the spider's world, toward which we have striven all these long years.