By Kerstin Skog, Jan Alexander
It's referred to now that heating carbohydrate-rich meals may cause the formation of acrylamide and additional learn is probably going to teach that different dangerous compounds are shaped throughout the warmth therapy of meals. for this reason assessing the hazards posed to shoppers through acrylamide and different in all probability carcinogenic and genotoxic compounds equivalent to heterocyclic amines and PhIP is a concern for the nutrients undefined. This new booklet offers the most recent learn within the quarter, discussing the mechanisms of formation of unsafe compounds in the course of warmth remedy, the research of dangerous compounds, the way to check the hazards they pose and novel easy methods to reduce their formation in meals items.
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Additional info for Acrylamide and Other Hazardous Compounds in Heat-treated Foods
Furthermore, in this scheme, acrylamide may be formed directly by elimination of the early decarboxylated Schiff intermediate (azomethine ylide). Alternatively, acrylamide could also be formed indirectly from the decarboxylated Schiff (hydrolysis) or Amadori (elimination) intermediates via 3-aminopropionamide, that can further degrade (elimination of ammonia) at elevated temperatures to furnish acrylamide. No direct evidence has been provided to date for the involvement of the decarboxylated Amadori compound in the formation of acrylamide (Route A, Fig.
Moisture Up to 50% reduction of acrylamide Springer by optimization of inlet/outlet temp. et al. (2003) in the oven and adjustment of recipes. Milling degree Relationship between milling degree and free asparagine, highest potential of acrylamide formation in rye meal and whole rye flour. Baking temperature Increase of acrylamide with increasing Surdyk et al. temp. ; 99% of the acrylamide formed in the crust. Addition of free asparagine Increase in acrylamide concentration. Addition of fructose No change in acrylamide content.
Toasting Increase in acrylamide amount with toasting time and color; kinetic model established. CIAA (2004) Fermented Fermentation rye and (yeast and wheat sourdough) Up to 87% reduction in acrylamide amount upon extended fermentation times. Yeast utilizes available free asparagine within two hours incubation. Only marginal effects in terms of reduction of acrylamide in sourdough fermented bread. Fredriksson et al. , 81 mmol/kg flour reduces acrylamide by up to 73% in bread crusts. BraÊthen et al.