By R. C. Newell (Eds.)
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Extra info for Adaptation to Environment. Essays on the Physiology of Marine Animals
There may be: (a) An increase of energy input during favourable parts of the tidal cycle to compensate for reduced food availability at other times, (b) The use of aerobic pathways for converting assimilated food into energy rich phosphates. This is an important way of reducing the amount of food reserves which are expended on metabolism, (c) A reduction in the amount of metabolic work which is 46 A D A P T A T I O N S TO INTERTIDAL LIFE performed by the organism. This may be brought about by a reduction in activity, and by a suppression of the effects of temperature increase during the intertidal period.
3. 3 VULGATA T H E T O L E R A N C E O F W A T E R LOSS IN T W O P O P U L A T I O N S O F T H E LIMPET A N D IN T H E L O W E R S H O R E P. ASPERA. PATELLA N O T E T H A T B O T H I N T R A - A S WELL A S INTERSPECIFIC D I F F E R E N C E S O C C U R IN T H E T O L E R A N C E O F W A T E R LOSS ( A F T E R D A V I E S , 1 9 6 9 ) % weight loss which all survive % weight loss for 5 0 % mortality % weight loss for 1 0 0 % mortality High level P. vulgata Low level P. aspera (low level) 60 60-65 65 44 50-55 55-60 24 30-35 40 specimens of P.
In some cases the temperature at which the animal is unable to resume normal activity when returned to low temperatures may be 31 A D A P T A T I O N S ΤΟ INTERTIDAL LIFE considerably less than the lethal temperature. Heat damage may thus operate in the environment at lower temperatures than those required to kill the animal outright, (b) The time of exposure to potentially lethal conditions. A long period of exposure to near lethal conditions may have a similar effect on an upper shore animal as a short exposure to a much higher temperature (see also Chapter 3).