And Along Came Boas: Continuity and Revolution in by Regna Darnell

By Regna Darnell

An exam of Americanist anthropology, in keeping with Boasian and Powellist rules and centering at the middle of the continuity throughout paradigm transition.

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Bushnell (1875-1941) revised it through circulars as late as 1911 (33rd A R for 1911-12, 1919, p . 32). Holmes's Handbook of Aboriginal Antiquities appeared in 1919. Powell's attempted synthesis of American Indian archaeology with ethnology and linguistics was, however, short-lived. B y the late 1890s, interest in the antiquity of the Indians had subsided and m o u n d exploration was less crucial. The Bureau was already entrenched in other kinds of archaeological work, particularly in the Southwest.

The public relations problem persisted. Thirty years later, Boas's Tsimshian texts were investigated on a charge of sending obscenity through the mails (Hodge to Boas, 31 March 1917: B A E ) . Moreover, a number of Bureau publications were withdrawn from circulation because of supposedly objectionable content (Fewkes to Michelson, 14 M a y 1920: B A E ) . The Bureau was not, of course, the only institution to face such censorship; as late as 1909, Sapir's Wishram texts were published by the Boas-dominated American Ethnological Society with passages in Latin to avoid scandalizing readers.

Grant (1822-1885) failed to see w h y policy problems in the Surveys mattered to mapping the nation, but others realized that consolidation of the overlapping organizations entailed a choice, one which would channel the course of federal government science. Previous laissez-faire politics could no longer control the proliferation of 26 Chapter 2 bureaucracies. " T h e Surveys led by Ferdinand Vandiveer Hayden (1829-1887) and Lt. George M . Wheeler (1842-1905) clashed in thefieldin 1874 and the scandal became public.

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