By Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
The 3rd quantity of the gathered works of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi covers his paintings at the software of move in components that transcend the sector of rest the place the idea that was once first utilized. in accordance with his own adventure with education and studying, in addition to that of many others and opposite to what Cicero claimed, Csikszentmihalyi arrived on the end that rather than taking delight in making the roots of information as sour as attainable, we must always try and lead them to sweeter. simply as move turned a well-liked and important idea in voluntary actions, it may well likewise be utilized in schooling with the outcome of adolescents being likely to continue to learn not only simply because they need to yet simply because they need to.
This quantity brings jointly a few articles during which Csikszentmihalyi develops rules approximately find out how to make schooling and extra regularly the method of studying to reside a great existence, extra relaxing. considering the fact that thought is the mummy of fine perform, the 1st 11 chapters are dedicated to theoretical reflections. a few are basic and discover what it capability to be a person, what it ability to be somebody, after we examine existence from the point of view of stream. Others are extra narrowly interested in such themes as intake, schooling, instructing and studying. they assist laypeople replicate how they could set up their lives in the sort of method as to depart a small ecological footprint whereas getting the main amusement. the second one portion of the amount incorporates a dozen empirical articles on related themes. They take care of the improvement of identification and self worth; with the formation of objectives and motivation; with loneliness and family members life.
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Additional info for Applications of Flow in Human Development and Education: The Collected Works of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
The balance of skills and challenges can also be described in Piagetian terms. An assimilative mode of processing indicates the existence of an organized, preexisting structure of information. That structure makes the processing of new information more automatic because it can be organized by the existing structure. The notion of ‘‘skills’’ suggests an analogous process; a skill is a practiced response, one that is habitual and automatic. A skilled pianist, therefore, primarily relies on an assimilative mode when reading an easy piece of music.
And this full attention is experienced as a feeling of flow, of being caught up in a single energy system that unites self and environment. Motivation to continue the activity becomes intrinsic—not in the mistaken sense of ‘‘in’’ the self, but rather ‘‘in’’ the self-environment relationship. Yet another way to look at the full involvement of flow is in terms of the combination of positive affect and heightened concentration. Some activities may evoke positive affect, but will soon be experienced as frivolous if they lack focus and the need for concentration.
A healthy ego, at least to a greater extent than an unhealthy one, is able to synchronize id and superego, primary with secondary process thought, therefore achieving greater self-regulation, freedom, and health. Several psychoanalytic thinkers have also associated such a synchrony with creativity (Jung 1946; Kris 1952). The implication here is that healthy ego development is presumably related to negotiating complex relationships and is therefore associated more with optimal experience. Finally, that optimal experiences synchronize affective and cognitive modes is supported by the descriptions of flow, peak experiences, and the emergent experiences of fully functioning persons.