Arctic Oceanography: Marginal Ice Zones and Continental by Walker O. Smith Jr., Jacqueline M. Grebmeier

By Walker O. Smith Jr., Jacqueline M. Grebmeier

Published via the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Coastal and Estuarine experiences, quantity 49.

The Arctic Ocean is the least understood ocean on the earth, and but its value to the world's oceans and weather is vast. for instance, it's been steered that the Arctic is the quarter probably to be stricken by elevated atmospheric temperatures which would happen due to anthropogenic releases of greenhouse gases. It additionally performs a serious position in worldwide oceanic move, in that it modulates the formation of deep water within the North Atlantic through ice export. regardless of its pivotal function in worldwide methods, the Arctic is still poorly understood. This quantity is an try and spotlight and synthesize many of the fresh advances in our wisdom of Arctic oceanography and contains themes that may curiosity actual, organic, chemical, and geological oceanographers in addition to atmospheric scientists.

That the Arctic is so poorly recognized relative to different oceans isn't a surprise. it truly is mostly ice-covered all year long, with just some of its continental cabinets turning into ice?]free in summer season. Its ice is generally multi?]year and extremely thick, making penetration into the deeper parts most unlikely other than through the main robust ice?]breakers. even if, lately new applied sciences were utilized to the Arctic, and our figuring out of the actual, chemical, organic and geological approaches which happen inside of it really is swiftly expanding. satellite tv for pc sensors become aware of the Arctic consistently, permitting us to stick to ice flow, storms, and openings within the pack ice that had by no means been saw formerly. Moorings, ships and buoys now can stand up to the various rigors of the Arctic, and observations of the water column and seabed have gotten extra universal. ultimately, as a result of its significance to international methods, reports of the Arctic are attracting scientists not just from Arctic international locations yet from countries worldwide. Arctic oceanography actually has turn into a global effort.

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Extra resources for Arctic Oceanography: Marginal Ice Zones and Continental Shelves

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A naive zero-dimensionalseaice model, J. ,93(C5), 5093-5099, 1988. , Water massesof the Arctic basin,in Polar Oceans,ed. by M. Dunbar,Arctic Inst. , Calgary,Alberta, Canada,17-31, 1977. A. Kong, Scatteringof electromagneticwaves from randommedia with strong permittivityfluctuations,Radio Science,16, 303-320, 1981. B. K. J. Gow, Physicalpropertiesof seaice relevantto remote sensing,in MicrowaveRemoteSensingof SeaIce, ed. by FrankCarsey,AGU, Washington,DC, 9-28, 1992. K. K. , 1981, 1982,and 1986.

24 SatelliteRemoteSensingof the ArcticOcean P BAND HH L BAND HH [' BAND P I,•U L E:AND UI, C BAND Bfq•,Igl HH Figure 9. 7 cm) images(courtesyof J. Crawford of the NASA/Jet PropulsionLaboratory). Sincethe sea-icecoveris constantly changing,a severalday compositeof altimeterdata would be difficult to interpret. As an imagingsystem overthe ocean,SAR can provideinformationaboutmesoscaleoceancurrentcirculation patternsincludingfrontal boundariesand eddies,slicks, internalwaves,and rapid mesoscalewind-field variations [Apel, 1987; Raney, 1993].

Hakkarinen,Estimationof monthlyrainfalloverJapanand surrounding watersfrom a combinationof low-orbitmicrowaveandgeosynchronous IR data,J. , 32(2), 335-356, 1993. B. R. T. S. A. Snyder,J. R. Geosc. ,28(5), 817-821, 1990. E. G. Warren, East Antarctic sea ice: albedo, thickness,distribution,and snowcover,J. ,98, 12,417-12,429, 1993. , Principlesof OceanPhysics,International GeophysicsSeries,Vol. , Orlando,FL, 1987. C. N. V. Ardizzone,andG. Brin, Spacebasedsurfacewind vectors to aid understanding of air-seainteractions, EOS, 72(18), 201,204, 205, 208, 1991.

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