By Kwan Man Bun (auth.)
Read Online or Download Beyond Market and Hierarchy: Patriotic Capitalism and the Jiuda Salt Refinery, 1914–1953 PDF
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Extra resources for Beyond Market and Hierarchy: Patriotic Capitalism and the Jiuda Salt Refinery, 1914–1953
In addition to a skillful blending of market, network, and hierarchy, Fan and his colleagues championed free marketing of refined salt with petitions and lawsuits while exploiting the different interests and factionalism within the salt bureaucracy as well as the division between the central and provincial governments. Drawing on their networks, influence (shili) could be exerted on officials to do nothing or decide in favor of the company, reinforced by goodwill (qingyi) invoked through network transitivity or manufactured by rent creation.
28%) of Jiuda by 1941. Despite these competing ties, Bian maintained a close personal relationship with Fan, frequently sharing information, advice, and access, in addition to arranging his chemist sons to work for Fan. 39 In practice, then, Jiuda’s bank network was also internally differentiated by the varying strengths of Fan’s relationship with the banks and the bankers, as well as the bankers’ own rival claims, creating a hierarchy within Jiuda’s bank network. 41 A node in his own right as a leading intellectual and national political figure, Liang worked with (and against) Yuan Shikai in various capacities, including brief stints as Minister of Justice (1913–1914), director of the Bureau of Currency Reform (Bizhiju, 1914), and the Council of State (Canzhengyuan, 1914).
He declared as his primary goals the building of a modern inspectorate, a uniform and comprehensive tax at source, and a large free trading area enjoying cheap salt of high quality. 37 His problems began with the difficulties of recruiting a qualified staff. On the Chinese side, high-level appointments at the central and divisional administrations remained vulnerable to politics. 38 Nor did Dane find all his foreign subordinates entirely up to his standards. ”39 R. D. Wolcott, an American who joined the service in 1919 and rose to acting foreign chief inspector in 1941, observed with dismay: (Esson) Gale is right in that control in this Service is purely bureaucratic; there is no real attempt at justice or fair-play.