Biomolecular Films (Surfactant Science Series) by James F. Rusling

By James F. Rusling

Surveying designated and sleek biomolecular movie methodologies and investigative innovations, this article examines motion pictures of biomolecules that could supply strong surfaces for catalyzing enzyme reactions, serve in biosensors and as biorecognition components, mediate nanoparticle formation, and supply a foundation for primary stories and purposes in biomedicine and biomedical units. The authors speak about designing practical biomolecular movies on electrodes, biomimetic membranes on steel helps, peptide and protein-based biomolecular assemblies, floor plasmon resonance spectroscopy, and biosensors.

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Films on electrodes featuring direct electron transfer provide the means to do enzyme chemistry under the driving force of the applied electrical potential (Fig. 8). The process is similar to electrochemical catalysis using nonbiological redox centers, a simple example of which is shown in Scheme 2. Here, redox catalyst P in a ¢lm is reversibly reduced by the electrode to the activated catalyst Q, which reduces the reactant A to product B [49,64]. Typically, A is directly (noncatalytically) reduced irreversibly at an electrode 0 potential more negative than the E 0 of the P/Q catalyst couple.

The polyionÀsurfactant complexes are dispersed in water by sonication, and protein is added to this solution before casting. Myoglobin was incorporated into cast and LB ¢lms of several polyionÀsurfactant complexes on PG electrodes. Reversible voltammetry in the liquid crystal phase, and characteristic gel-to-liquid crystal phase transitions were observed in all cases [126]. Similar to the simple surfactant ¢lms, formal potentials depended on surfactant structure and charge. Mb was also studied in composite ¢lms of DDAþ and polyacrylate À (PA ) [172].

The measured value was 10 ms, suggesting that Mb di¡uses physically through the DNA ¢lms. Standard electrochemical rate constants can also be used to characterize electroactive ¢lms. They are denoted ks ðsÀ1 Þ when determined under thin-¢lm conditions or k 00 (cm/s) when estimated under di¡usioncontrolled conditions. Electrochemical rate constants depend on applied potential, and ks and k 00 are de¢ned as the apparent values of the standard electrochemical rate constants at E ¼ E 00 . Also, k 00 % dks , where d is ¢lm thickness in centimeters.

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