Biophysics and biochemistry of cartilage by nmr and mri by Yang Xia

By Yang Xia

This distinctive booklet describes the newest info within the basic knowing of the biophysics and biochemistry of articular cartilage utilizing the state of the art practices in NMR and MRI. this is often the 1st ebook of its type, written through physicists and chemists in this very important tissue, whose degradation contributes to osteoarthritis and similar joint illnesses. Connecting the elemental technological know-how with the scientific imaging functions, the specialists Editors supply an authoritative addition to the literature.
Ideal for working towards actual scientists and radiologists with an curiosity within the primary technology in addition to tool brands and medical researchers operating with articular cartilage

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In the radial zone, proteoglycan has the highest concentration but more variable in its distribution around cells. In the pericellular matrix of each chondrocyte, the concentration of proteoglycan can be two-fold higher than that in the matrix distant from the cells. These proteoglycan macromolecules are rich in polysaccharide side-chains with negatively charged carboxyl and sulfate groups that give articular cartilage a hydrophilic nature. The spatial distribution of GAGs in cartilage can be visualized by using a number of histochemical assays (as well as MRI;85 see chapter 6).

For perspective, the pressure of 20 MPa is approximately 100 times the air pressure in the tires supporting an automobile, although automobile tires utilize a significantly larger surface area. 78,128 Since the density of the FCD increases with depth from the surface,129 and the fluid (water) content and permeability decrease with tissue depth,62,130,131 the magnitude of compressive resistance in articular cartilage is highly depth-dependent. 10 MPa in the deepest zone. 133–135 A consequence of this depth- dependent compression is that an external loading on an intact joint damages the surface cells to a greater extent than the deep cells.

The safranin-O staining assay86,87 is also a sensitive and easy method to quantify the GAG concentration. 1% (w/v) safranin-O. Safranin-O is a cationic dye that binds to both sulfate and carboxyl groups and precipitates GAG. The precipitate is stable and tolerates interference from many other chemical species. 1039/9781782623663-00001 18 Chapter 1 the sample at λ = 475 nm is proportional to the local concentration of GAG. 86 Further discussion of histochemical assays of cartilage can be found in chapter 22.

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