Biscuit, Cookies, and Cracker Manufacturing, Manual 4 Baking by Duncan Manley

By Duncan Manley

This series of manuals addresses key matters corresponding to caliber, defense and reliability for these operating and coaching within the manufacture of biscuits, cookies and crackers. every one handbook offers a self-sufficient advisor to a key subject, packed with functional recommendation on problem-solving and troubleshooting drawn from over 30 years within the industry.What occurs in a Baking Oven o forms of Ovens o Post-Oven tactics o Cooling o dealing with o Troubleshooting TipsThis guide describes what's enthusiastic about baking and cooling biscuits from dough items which were put on the oven band.

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Extra info for Biscuit, Cookies, and Cracker Manufacturing, Manual 4 Baking and Cooling (Biscuit, Cookie and Cracker Manufacturing Manuals)

Sample text

The baking requirements for different types of biscuit will be considered later. There are four major changes to the dough piece which can be seen as it is baked: 1 A large reduction in product density (the dough gets thicker) associated with the development of an open porous or flaky structure. 2 A change of shape associated with shrinkage or spread and increase in thickness. 32 Principles of baking 0 o 60 $ - 33 E 50 Y 0 > Reflectance a! B VI 20 0 I I I I 2 4 6 0 Bake time ( m i d Fig. 4 Changes to the dough piece during baking.

Some preheating of the oven band before the dough pieces are placed upon it is desirable to promote heat transfer by conduction. After the dough has expanded and the structure has set, it is necessary to concentrate on moisture removal. Air movement will keep the temperature and humidity at the dough piece surface favourable for this to occur. However, as the biscuit dries, conduction of heat from the surface to the wetter centre becomes progressively more difficult and a large moisture gradient will develop.

The heat is controlled either by varying the amount of gas being supplied to each burner or by turning off selected burners. The gas and air mixture supplied to each burner is made by pressurising either the gas or the air and blowing it through a venturi tube to make a suitable gas and air mixture. There are usually control systems on all or a number of the burners to allow variable disposition of heat across the oven band. Adjustment of these is usually the engineer’s, not the operator’s, task.

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