By Brian K. Hall
It truly is well written and complete publication for readers, who are looking to cross deep within the box of developmental skeletal biology. It presents remarkable information regarding simple strategies of skeletongenesis and interspecies' evolution. regrettably there is not any an excessive amount of in regards to the final information of the underlying molecular bases yet evidently this was once now not the foremost objective of the authors. even though, as repayment they continually discuss with acceptable titles for extra details.
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Additional info for Bones and Cartilage: Developmental Skeletal Biology
Although Portal (1770) argued that the embryonic skeleton is first formed in cartilage and only later in bone, almost 70 years elapsed before Johannes Müller demonstrated that cartilage is destroyed and replaced by bone. Meischer, also in 1836, was the first to refer to the stages in endochondral ossification in growing bone. Twelve years later, W. S. Sharpey refined the views of Nesbitt and Müller with his Theory of Substitution, which states that bone replaces cartilage in endochondral bones.
5. From the studies Alison Cole has recently completed in my laboratory it became clear that many of the invertebrate cartilages also fit into a category of intermediate tissues, but I will not preempt her studies here. See Cole and Hall (2004a,b) for the beginnings of this story. 6. By ectopic I mean ‘out of place,’ or ‘extraskeletal,’ in the sense that the element develops outside the primary skeleton and so is extraskeletal in origin and location. Some elements such as sesamoids are ectopic in origin and initial location but then join with the primary skeleton.
Unlike bone cells, chondrocytes lack connecting cell processes. 1, Fig. 5). Most chondrocytes continue to divide throughout life, although in some cartilages (mammalian articular cartilages, for example), the number of dividing cells may be less than one per cent of the chondrocyte population. The hydrated ECM of vertebrate cartilage is primarily composed of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), notably chondroitin sulphates and proteoglycans. The major collagen is type II, composed of three ␣II chains, depicted as ␣1(I)2␣II.