Celebrating the Megascale: Proceedings of the Extraction and by Phillip J. Mackey, Eric J. Grimsey, Rodney T. Jones,

By Phillip J. Mackey, Eric J. Grimsey, Rodney T. Jones, Geoffrey A. Brooks

The quantity includes greater than 70 papers masking the real themes and matters in metallurgy this present day together with papers as follows: keynote papers protecting a tribute to David Robertson, crew talents wanted within the career going ahead, copper smelting, ladle metallurgy, method metallurgy and source potency, new flash iron making expertise, ferro-alloy electrical furnace smelting and at the position of bubbles in metallurgical processing operations. subject matters coated intimately during this quantity comprise ferro-alloys, non-ferrous metallurgy, iron and metal, modeling, schooling, and fundamentals.

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Extra resources for Celebrating the Megascale: Proceedings of the Extraction and Processing Division Symposium on Pyrometallurgy in Honor of David G.C. Robertson

Example text

D 4,000 , ........................................................ / 2,000 , ................................ 1945 1950 1955 ..................................................................................................... ,/b ..................................................................................................................... 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year Figure 7. Trend showing the increase in pig iron output per blast furnace at blast furnaces in Japan [I].

J: Cl E 10 > Natural conveclion Air-Fin cooling Falling water film cooling Copperfinger (walercooled) Plate coolers (walercooled) Cooling system Figure 14. Range of average heat flux levels for different furnace wall cooling systems generally applicable to copper smelting furnaces. Tt is noted that depending on design, waffle type coolers (not included here) can provide heat fluxes over 500 kW/m2 for more intense cooling, such as now used on high temperature Ni-Cu smelting or ferro-nickel electric furnaces.

Ll~:.. eL. ~/ c;, '"0;E mtlxr .... #'LJ -- -- In 10,000 . c. c. 8 ~ 2In ~ " ~ J:: Cl :;: I- 1 1,000 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 Note: The copper tonnage shown here is an approximate estimate only, and could vary around the average values indictated. In earlier times, multiple furnaces would be used. The copper tonnage for 2013 for example could vary from 330 k t/yr to around 400 k Uyr of anode copper, depending on factors such as % Cu in concentrate, the on-stream time and other factors 2000 2020 Year Figure 5.

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