By Tom Everett-Heath
The 5 relevant Asian States of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan stand on the crossroads of worldwide civilization. prompted through South Asia, Iran, China and Russia, this sector which has lately burst onto the realm level once more, guards a unique identification. This assortment via verified specialists at the zone covers the dramatic Soviet interventions of the early twentieth century, and information the function of ethnicity and the contribution made by means of Islamic impulses within the technique of development the trendy kingdom states.
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Extra info for Central Asia: Aspects of Transition
A. Mel’kumov, Turkestantsy (Moscow: Ministerstva Oborony Soyuza SSR, 1960), p. 16. 6 Sokol, op. , p. 126. 25 ALEXANDER MARSHALL 7 During the revolt in Samarkand oblast among the Sarts, the uyezd of Jizak suffered the effects of a Russian punitive column: kishlaks were burnt to the ground and natives expelled from their land. During the most violent phase of the revolt in Semirechie whole villages were flattened by artillery fire and Kuropatkin himself gave the order ‘not to spare the cartridges’.
62 Ritter, ‘The Final Phase’, op. , p. 487. 63 Anonymous, ‘The Basmachis’, op. , p. 238. 64 Fraser, ‘The Basmachi – I’, op. , p. 63. 65 Glenda Fraser, ‘The Basmachi – II’, Central Asian Survey Vol. 6 (2), 1987, p. 8. 66 Ritter, ‘The Final Phase’, op. , p. 486. , op. , p. 134. 68 Fraser, ‘The Basmachi – II’, op. , p. 11. 69 Ritter, ‘The Final Phase’, op. , p. 486. , op. , p. 125. 71 Ritter, ‘The Final Phase’,op. , p. 485. 72 M. Irkaev, Istorii Grazhdanskoi Voiny v Tadzhikistane Izdatelstvo ‘Irfon’ (Dushanbe, 1971), p.
100 Yet, approximately sixty years later, the Soviet Army was fighting guerrillas in Afghanistan with techniques more appropriate to a Second World War armoured offensive. The flexible military-political instrument Frunze had helped to create appeared to have been discarded. The Soviet Army was, above all else, a political instrument of the party. From Lenin onwards, the Communist Party was fanatical about retaining full control of the army, due to a paranoid fear of Bonapartism. Thus, when viewing apparent doctrinal changes in the army, one must also examine changes in Russian political policy.