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Extra resources for Chemical Mechanical Polishing in Silicon Processing
C. Kaanta, W. Cote, J. Cronin, K. -I. Lee, T. Wright, “Submicron Wiring Technology with Tungsten and Planarization,” Int. Deu. Meeting Technical Digest, pp. 209-212, 1987. 2. S . Pennington, S. Luce, “Improved Process Latitude with Chemical-Mechanical Polishing,” Proceedings of the VMIC Conference, pp. 168-172 Santa Clara, CA, June 9-10, 1992. 3. J. M. Steigerwald, S . P. Murarka, R. J. , 1997. 4. K. Holland, T. 35pm and Beyond,” SEMI Technical Symposium, Makuhari Messe, Chiba, Japan, Dec. 4-6, 1996.
Pneumatic pressure is applied through an inlet resulting in hydrostatic pressure directly against the wafer. There is not necessarily any independent retaining ring control. 9. (a) The distributed polish head extends the concept of hydrostatic pressure by integrating polish blocks in the carrier design to ensure that locally the spatial variation in the polish pressure is low. (b) Schematic representation of the region on a wafer that a polish block may contact. it is absent. In one invention, the pressure applied to the retaining ring is adjusted separately from that of the carrier .
Other CMP applications do not require such aggressive pad conditioning. For example, pad conditioning for tungsten plug CMP is done with a conditioner. Pad conditioning is also used to shape the pad during polishing to improve uniformity. Figure 13 shows a plot of the pad thickness after polishing 481 wafers on a rotational platform. The bar in the figure indicates the location of the wafer during polish. The effect of pad conditioning on shaping the pad is evident. For the process shown in the figure, the pad was curved to enhance the removal rate in the center of the wafer.