By John F. Copper
This three-volume paintings is the 1st complete examine of China's overseas reduction and funding international relations to track its evolution because the founding of PRC in 1949. quantity I examines the definitions, origins, nature, and scope of China's overseas reduction and funding and exhibits that China has a extra salient heritage of giving than the other country.
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Extra resources for China’s Foreign Aid and Investment Diplomacy, Volume I: Nature, Scope, and Origins
126 China also promised support to Third World countries in matters other than financial. This may be seen simply as China’s rationalization for giving less aid. But it was more than that. One scholar/author describes the situation as China ending Mao’s “conceptual pillars”: self-reliance, minimizing dependency, and transforming the capitalist world economy. 129 And various other projects were cut back or not started. Finally, China changed its policy regarding supporting wars of national liberation virtually ending its aid to various insurgency groups.
There are no data to be found on China’s external investments during period one because there were few of them. From 1979 to 1985 there were reportedly 189 cases approved totaling to around $200 million. 2 billion. 3 billion annually for the rest of the decade. 241 China thus provided data on its external investments, but not figures that adhere to the definition of foreign direct investment (FDI) used by Western countries. According to a US analyst, China made foreign non-bond investments totaling more than $316 billion from 2005 to 2010.
Finally, China changed its policy regarding supporting wars of national liberation virtually ending its aid to various insurgency groups. 131 As part of this shift of policy and China’s need for capital to advance its economic development, many of its aid projects were converted to moneymaking enterprises. 134 However, China increased its emergency aid donations and its funding to some United Nations’ programs. Both gained China favorable publicity for its aid program at a fairly low cost. 135 Some aid projects, especially smaller ones, were retained.