By Hakho Lee; Donhee Ham; Robert M Westervelt
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Analytical techniques used to separate proteins are useful for diagnosing diseases or for investigating when certain genes are turned on or off throughout the cell cycle [6, 11]. Similarly, techniques for separating mixtures of DNA molecules are useful for studying genetic variation, which is important for determining how individual genes function, elucidating the foundations of genetic diseases, or anticipating reactions to medicines . Separating DNA by size is also useful for characterizing DNA libraries and is necessary to sequence DNA molecules or do forensic DNA fingerprinting [5, 12].
G. 4 MiCROfLUiDiC EXPERiMENTS Chip-based microfluidic devices have emerged over the last decade as viable – and perhaps superior – platforms for separating biological molecules. Microfluidics, as exemplified by the promise of µTAS technology, have the potential to perform “classic” biological separations using less reagents, in less time, and with better resolution than current methods can deliver. A diagram of a typical microfluidic channel is shown in Fig. 4. 4(a) shows a top-down view of a standard, crossed-channel design used for separating biomolecules based upon size, charge, or affinity to a material in the separation channel.
Even speeds of liquids about 10 m/sec, which are much faster than those found in typical small devices, have M = 1, so density variations can be neglected. Much more common in small devices are lower Reynolds number flows. In such flows the pressure changes occur owing to viscous effects in the liquid. In this case, in a device with typical dimension l (the small geometric dimension that impacts the flow), δp ≈ µu/l . 11) where R = ρu l /µ is the Reynolds number. Since most microfluidic flows occur with conditions such that u < 1 m/sec then M2 ≈ 10–6 which is much smaller than the usual Reynolds numbers of the flows and again density variations can be neglected.