By J. A. McCleverty, T. J. Meyer
Entire Coordination Chemistry II (CCC II) is the sequel to what has develop into a vintage within the box, complete Coordination Chemistry, released in 1987. CCC II builds at the first and surveys new advancements authoritatively in over two hundred newly comissioned chapters, with an emphasis on present developments in biology, fabrics technology and different parts of latest medical curiosity.
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Extra resources for Comprehensive Coordination Chemistry II: From Biology to Nanotechnology (10 Volumes Set)
1 Introduction Several poly(acrylates) and poly(alkylacrylates) are commercially manufactured commodity polymers, one of the most important being poly(methylmethacrylate), PMMA (Scheme 4). 425 These polymers are traditionally prepared using free-radical polymerization technology, but such methods usually offer little control over molecular weight or tacticity. The commercial significance of PMMA has therefore encouraged the development of a variety of living anionic and coordinative polymerization catalysts.
729 The process is catalyzed by the same metal alkylidene initiators used for ROMP, and is driven by the removal of ethylene from the system (Scheme 13). 1 Introduction The high level of interest in the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic esters (lactones) stems from the biocompatibility and biodegradability of their polymers. Resorbable aliphatic O O O O O O O CL O O O O LA O GA O δ-VL O O β-BL β-PL O γ-BL O O Scheme 14 CL : "-caprolactone, LA=lactide, GA=glycolide, -VL=-valerolactone, -BL=
-butyrolactone, -BL=-butyrolactone, -PL=-propiolactone Metal Complexes as Catalysts for Polymerization Reactions 37 polyesters are usually tolerated well by mammalian tissue, making them good candidates for the construction of in vivo medical devices,736 while materials based on polylactic acid (PLA) are derivable from biosustainable resources such as corn starch and dairy products, which provide attractive feedstocks for the production of biodegradable films and fibers.
738,739 Lactide (LA), the cyclic diester of lactic acid, has two stereogenic centers and hence exists as three stereoisomers: L-lactide (S,S), D-lactide (R,R), and meso-lactide (R,S). In addition, raclactide, a commercially available racemic mixture of the (R,R) and (S,S) forms, is also frequently studied. PLA may exhibit several stereoregular architectures (in addition to the non-stereoregular atactic form), namely isotactic, syndiotactic, and heterotactic (Scheme 15). The purely isotactic form may be readily prepared from the ROP of L-LA (or D-LA), assuming that epimerization does not occur during ring opening.