By Susan Rose-Ackerman
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Extra info for Corruption. A Study in Political Economy
23 In this model, if a lobbyist cannot successfully claim to represent constituent sentiment, legislators would refuse to be educated and would seek to have the cost of the proffered information converted into a direct payment. There is some impressionistic evidence supporting this conclusion. Thus Milbrath (1963), in his study of Washington lobbyists, concludes that kkthe smart lobbyist tries to demonstrate to a member that following a particular course of action will help him in his constituency [p.
16 Indeed, if an interest group believes that the political productivity of an advertising campaign is low, it may make a conscious attempt to hide from the public legislation favorable to its interest, using bribes or campaign contributions to enlist the collaboration of legislators in these efforts. 18 Similarly, if issues are neither predetermined nor well defined, interest groups may try either to frame issues so that they Hard evidence on the tie between contributions and legislative outcomes is, however, unavailable.
38 3 INTEREST GROUP ACTIVITY AND THE LEGISLATURE C. Apathetic Voters I turn next to analyze a political environment where the electorate is dominated by personal or family concerns and wants " h e l p " from its political representatives, not general legislation. In this model, the actual issues voted on by the legislature are irrelevant to the vast majority of the population. Instead, their votes for candidates are determined by the value of personal election-time benefits handed out by the highest bidder.