By N. Underhill
Explores present debates round spiritual extremism as a method to appreciate and re-think the connections among terrorism, insurgency and kingdom failure. utilizing case reports of Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iraq, she develops a greater figuring out of the underlying motives and prerequisites worthy for terrorism and insurgency to happen.
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Extra resources for Countering Global Terrorism and Insurgency: Calculating the Risk of State Failure in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iraq
Building on this is the argument that failed states offer terrorist groups larger pools of recruits or potential recruits as they contain larger numbers of disaffected and alienated citizens, for whom political violence is, in the majority of cases, an accepted avenue of behaviour. Failed states, through their inherent incompetence, create political vacuums into which these terrorist groups step. 2 28 Assessing State Failure, Insurgency, and Terrorism 29 As well as that, much of the modern international relations and terrorism literature focuses on Islamic Fundamentalism as being the causative factor of the current wave of terrorism, but is this really the case?
The departure left the country in a shambles and Afghan society with no accepted symbol of political legitimacy. 21 The people of Afghanistan were left divided into two main factions: the first was the faction who followed the Kabul government under Najibullah and the second were those who supported the numerous mujahideen groups. 22 Najibullah’s regime, without financial aid and support 42 Countering Global Terrorism and Insurgency from the Soviets, immediately began to fracture and disintegrate.
The situation was made worse by the fighting between the contending forces of Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, the founder and leader of Hezb-I Islami, and Burhanuddin Rabbani, the leader of the Jamiat-e Islami Afghanistan. The split between the Pashtun and non-Pashtun elements of Afghan society became more pronounced, with the majority of the nonPashtun elements of the government’s armed forces joining Ahmed Shah Massoud in the north, while the Pashtun elements joined Hekmatyar and Mawlawi Haghani in the east and Haji Qadir forces in Nangarhar.