By Antonio F. Corno, Pierluigi Festa
The analysis and administration of congenital middle defects has swiftly developed during the last few many years.
In this 3rd quantity of the sequence entitled ''Congenital middle Defects: choice Making for Surgery'' Antonio Corno presents an up to date and complete presentation of the hot position that cardiac CT and MRI will play within the administration of congenital center defects. He has been ably assisted through a heart specialist, Pierluigi Festa.
The e-book offers a stunning array of pictures derived through either strategies and covers the complete variety of congenital middle malformations. either the pre-operative and post-operative usefulness of those recommendations is gifted: within the pre-operative interval in regards to the main points valuable for selecting between all on hand surgical innovations; within the post-operative interval for tracking the follow-up and strength complications.
There is not any doubt that those strategies should be fairly priceless for older youngsters and adults with congenital middle affliction in assessing the overdue effect of a congenital center malformation and the surgical fix or palliation which can were undertaken years previously.
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Additional resources for CT-Scan and MRI
Unroofed coronary sinus, status post repair. MR angiography with maximal intensity projection reconstruction showing the coronary sinus re-routing to the right atrium (CS coronary sinus, LA left atrium, LV left ventricle, RA right atrium, SVC superior vena cava) z Potential complications Fig. 3. Status post repair of unroofed coronary sinus. a CT scan, contrast angiography, coronal projection showing the reconstruction of the unroofed coronary sinus with a patch creating a tunnel inside the left atrial chamber (white arrows) to deviate the venous return of the persistent left superior vena cava to a new connection with the right atrium (black arrow).
Other more rare anomalous systemic venous connections (Figs. 7) must be taken into account before planning the surgical strategy. Fig. 3. Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava. Gadolinium-enhanced 3-dimensional MR angiography with subvolume maximal intensity projection in the coronal plane demonstrating the absence of the right superior vena cava and persistent left superior vena cava draining in a dilated coronary sinus (RA right atrium, RPA right pulmonary artery, SVC superior vena cava) Fig.
In the presence of scimitar syndrome, the pre-operative CT scan and MRI, in addition to the visualization of the anomalous venous connection, are also useful to evaluate the degree of hypoplasia of the right lung, pulmonary artery and other associated anomalies (Figs. 6). 0) (Fig. 3), z oblique axial and para-sagittal fast spin echo and segmented k-space cine steadystate free precession pulse sequences at the atrial level for anatomical detail of the atrial septal defect and the pulmonary veins connections and their relationship (Fig.